Water Hammer: An Analysis of Plumbing Systems, Intrusion, and Pump Operation
This thesis provides a comprehensive look at water hammer with an emphasis on home plumbing systems. The mathematics of water hammer are explained, including the momentum and continuity equations for conduits, system construction, and the four-point implicit finite difference scheme to numerically solve the problem. This paper also shows how the unsteady momentum and continuity equations can be used to solve water distribution problems instead of the steady-state energy and continuity equations, along with the examples problems which show that an unsteady approach is more suitable than the standard Hardy-Cross method. Residential plumbing systems are examined in this paper, household fixtures are modeled for their hydraulic functions, and several water hammer simulations are run using the Water Hammer and Mass Oscillation program (WHAMO). It is determined from these simulations that the amount of air volume in the system is a key factor in controlling water hammer. Abnormal pump operation is clearly explained including a description of the four quadrants and eight zones of operation as well as the mathematics and a numerical scheme for computation. Low pressures caused by transients can lead to intrusion and contamination of the drinking water supply. Several scenarios are simulated using the WHAMO program and cases are provided in which intrusion occurs. From the intrusion scenarios, key factors for intrusion to occur during transients include the starting energy in the system, the magnitude of the transient, the hydraulics of the intrusion opening, and the external energy on the pipe (the level of the groundwater table). A primer for using WHAMO is provided as an appendix as well.