An Interactive Generic Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (igPBPK) Modeling Platform to Predict Drug Withdrawal Intervals in Cattle and Swine: A Case Study on Flunixin, Florfenicol, and Penicillin G
Violative chemical residues in edible tissues from food-producing animals are of global public health concern. Great efforts have been made to develop physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for estimating withdrawal intervals (WDIs) for extralabel prescribed drugs in food animals. Existing models are insufficient to address the food safety concern as these models are either limited to 1 specific drug or difficult to be used by non-modelers. This study aimed to develop a user-friendly generic PBPK platform that can predict tissue residues and estimate WDIs for multiple drugs including flunixin, florfenicol, and penicillin G in cattle and swine. Mechanism-based in silico methods were used to predict tissue/plasma partition coefficients and the models were calibrated and evaluated with pharmacokinetic data from Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD). Results showed that model predictions were, in general, within a 2-fold factor of experimental data for all 3 drugs in both species. Following extralabel administration and respective U.S. FDA-approved tolerances, predicted WDIs for both cattle and swine were close to or slightly longer than FDA-approved label withdrawal times (eg, predicted 8, 28, and 7 days vs labeled 4, 28, and 4 days for flunixin, florfenicol, and penicillin G in cattle, respectively). The final model was converted to a web-based interactive generic PBPK platform. This PBPK platform serves as a user-friendly quantitative tool for real-time predictions of WDIs for flunixin, florfenicol, and penicillin G following FDA-approved label or extralabel use in both cattle and swine, and provides a basis for extrapolating to other drugs and species.