Effect of Viscous Fluid Dampers on Steel Moment Frame Designed for Strength and Hybrid Steel Moment Frame Design
The first purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of added viscous fluid dampers on a nine story special steel moment frame designed for strength in Seattle. At the initial stages of the work, knowing the fact that moment frames are almost always controlled by drift, it was thought that two different moment frames, controlled by strength or controlled by drift (stiffness), could be designed in Seattle and the effect of additional dampers on the structural behavior of the strength controlled design could be studied.
However, since ASCE 7 permits determining the elastic drifts by using the seismic design forces based on the computed fundamental period of the structure, without the upper limit (CuTa), the strength controlled design satisfied the drift limit requirements of ASCE 7. Although the strength controlled design meets the drift requirements, the stability checks of both ASCE 7 and the AISC Seismic Design Manual were not satisfied. Thus, the strength controlled frame was redesigned to meet the stability requirements, and the process is called stability controlled design.
By adding supplemental dampers to the strength controlled design, it was expected that the seismic drift would be controlled and a better structural behavior would be obtained in terms of dynamic stability. Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) was implemented to investigate the benefits of the dampers on the structural behavior. Using ten different earthquakes scaled up to a maximum target multiplier two, with ten increments, damage measures such as interstory drift, residual displacement, IDA dispersion, base shear, and roof displacement were studied. Using IDA dispersion, the effect of dampers on dynamic instability was also investigated in this study.
As a result, it was found that as the damping of the structure increases with the help of added dampers, the structural response gets better. Maximum and residual roof displacements, interstory drifts, and IDA dispersion decreases with increasing damping. In addition, by using supplemental damping, most of the collapses that occur for the inherently damped frames are prevented.
The second purpose of this research is to develop an improved "Hybrid" moment frame without added damping but by controlling the inelastic behavior. Hybrid Frames were designed as the combination of three different moment frames: Special, Intermediate and Ordinary Moment Frames (SMF, IMF, OMF). The design procedure of each bay, which corresponds to different moment frame systems, follows the rules of the related moment frame for that bay. By varying the plastic hinge capacities across the same level stories, four different Hybrid Frame designs were obtained. Nonlinear static pushover analysis was applied to these frames, and as expected, the more reduction in the plastic capacity of the Hybrid Frame, the earlier the pushover curve starts yielding and the later the negative post yield stiffness of the pushover curve was reached. It was observed that the effect of early plastic hinge forming in the frame, which caused inelastic hysteretic damping, and the relatively late formation of negative post yield stiffness resulted in a better dynamic behavior.
As a result of the IDA studies, as the frames become more "hybrid", the residual displacements decrease significantly and then collapses are even prevented. This is considered as the positive effect of reaching the negative post yield stiffness late. The residual displacement was reduced for low intensity gentle earthquakes. The ductility demand IDA study proves that as the frames become more hybrid, the ductility demand increases for the special detailing frame, where plastic capacity was reduced, and decreases for the ordinary detailing frame, where the plastic capacity was increased. The Hybrid Frame system is expected to perform better than the traditional special moment frame, and to be more economical than the special moment frame because of the limited amount of special detailing.