Quantifying the Effects of Microbial Phytase and Diet Acidity on Ca and P Utilization by Weanling Pigs

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1997-06-27
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Virginia Tech
Abstract

Five experiments were conducted, utilizing 512 crossbred weanling pigs to determine the P (Exp. 1) and Ca (Exp. 2 and 3) equivalency values of microbial phytase based on performance, rib mineralization and P and Ca digestibility estimates, and to investigate the possible interactions of phytase and citric acid (Exp. 4 and 5). In Exp. 1, adding phytase to low P diets linearly increased ADG (P < .001), rib shear force (P < .01), shear energy (P < .02), ash weight (P < .001) and ash percent (P < .001), Ca (P < .001) and P (P < .001) digestibility and digestible Ca (P < .001) and P (P <.001). Added P linearly increased ADG (P < .003), rib shear force (P < .003) shear energy (P < .001), ash weight (P < .001) and ash percent (P < .01), Ca (P < .02) and P (P < .001) digestibility and digestible Ca (P < .02) and P (P <.001). Based on phytase and P linear or nonlinear response equations for ADG, rib shear force, shear energy, and ash weight, P digestibility, and digestible P, the average equivalency of 500 U/kg of phytase was .78 g of P per kg of diet. In Exp. 2, dietary addition of phytase linearly increased rib ash % (P < .03), Ca (P < .001) and P (P < .001) digestibilities, and digested Ca (P < .001) and P (P < .001), but had no effect (P > .10) on ADG and rib shear force and ash weight. Added Ca linearly increased ADG (wk 3-4, P < .04), and rib shear force (P < .001), ash percentage (P < .001) and ash weight (P < .01), and digested Ca (P < .001), but P digestibility (P = .07) and digested P (P = .08) were numerically decreased. In Exp. 3, added phytase linearly increased ADG (wk 3-4, P < .002), feed efficiency (wk 3-4, P < .02), rib ash weight (P < .001), Ca total tract digestibility (P < .001), and Ca (P < .001) and P (P < .001) ileal digestibilities. Added Ca linearly increased ADG (wk 3-4, P < .02), feed efficiency (wk 3-4, P < .01), rib ash percentage (P < .001) and ash weight ( P < .001), shear force (P < .03) and energy (P < .008), and total tract (P < .001) and ileal (P < .001) digestible Ca. Based on phytase and Ca linear or nonlinear response equations for ADG in wk 3-4, measurements of rib mineralization, and digestible Ca, 500 U of microbial phytase was estimated to be equivalent to 1.08 g and .78 g of Ca in Exp. 2 and 3, respectively. In Exp. 4 and 5, dietary phytase addition linearly increased rib shear force (P < .004 and P < .02), shear energy (P < .001), dry bone weight (P < .001), ash weight (P < .001) and ash percent (P < .001). Calcium (P < .001) and P (P < .001) digestibilities were also improved in both experiments when phytase was added. Addition of citric acid in both experiments, reduced dietary pH and stomach digesta pH (P < .05). The addition of citric acid improved ADG (P < .05), feed efficiency (P < .04) and Ca digestibility (P < .05) in Exp. 4, but decreased Ca digestibility in Exp. 5 and had no effect on performance. In Exp. 5, the addition of 2.0% citric acid to the diet supplemented with 500 U/kg of phytase caused a decrease (P < .04) in the phytase activity recovered in the stomach digesta resulting in a phytase by citric acid interaction (P < .02). In summary, the addition of 500 U/kg microbial phytase to weanling pig diets, causes the release of approximately .78 g of P and .93 g of Ca, thus decreasing the need for supplemental P and Ca. The addition of citric acid to phytase supplemented diets does not appear to enhance the efficacy of microbial phytase based on the results of these studies.

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Keywords
Rib Mineralization, Pigs, Phytase, Phosphorus, Calcium, Citric Acid
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