A Tunable Optical Bragg Grating Filter Based on the Droplet Sagging Effect on a Superhydrophobic Nanopillar Array
Nanostructures have been widely applied on superhydrophobic surfaces for controlling the wetting states of liquid microdroplets. Many modern optic devices including sensors are also integrated with micro- or nanostructures for function enhancement. However, it is rarely reported that both microfluidics and optics are compatibly integrated in the same nanostructures. In this paper, a novel microfluidic-controlled tunable filter composed of an array of periodic micro/nanopillars on top of a planar waveguide is proposed and numerically simulated, in which the periodic pillars endow both the Bragg grating and the superhydrophobic functions. The tunability of grating is achieved by controlling the sagging depth of a liquid droplet into the periodic pillars. Simulation results show that a narrow bandwidth of 0.4 nm and a wide wavelength tuning range over 25 nm can be achieved by such a microfluidic-based tunable optofluidic waveguide Bragg grating filter. Moreover, this proposed scheme can be easily modified as a refractive index sensor with a sensitivity of 103 nm per refractive index unit.