Five-factor model, life satisfaction, and drug use refusal self-efficacy: Examination of a mediation and moderation model among individuals in recovery

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Virginia Tech


An abundance of literature has shown the five-factor model personality traits can influence current and lifetime substance use. Life satisfaction, although less clearly, has also demonstrated a significant contribution to substance use behaviors and outcomes. Still, little is known about how life satisfaction influences the relationship between personality and substance use measures pertinent to recovery like drug use refusal self-efficacy. The goal of this study is to advance the current literature on substance use by examining the mechanisms influencing the relationship between personality and life satisfaction and drug use refusal self-efficacy for a sample diagnosed with at least one substance use disorder (SUD) and/or alcohol use disorder (AUD). Data was analyzed using deidentified information from a large diverse SUD client pool (n = 348) who were recruited from the general population and from two Midwest SUD treatment centers for a larger parent study. A series of mediation and moderation analyses were tested. The relationships between both neuroticism and conscientiousness with drug use refusal self-efficacy were significantly mediated by life satisfaction. Life satisfaction significantly moderated the relationship between extraversion and drug use refusal self-efficacy. These findings suggest life satisfaction may be a novel modifiable treatment target to reduce negative effects of personality on SUD drug refusal self-efficacy, and that life satisfaction may influence and change how extraversion relates to risks among those in recovery.



neuroticism, conscientiousness, opioid use, life satisfaction