Energy Management System in DC Future Home


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Virginia Tech


Making electricity grids smarter and facilitating them with integration of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy storage are fairly accepted as the necessary steps to achieve a sustainable and secure power industry. To enable Net-zero energy and optimize power management for future homes or buildings, DC electric distribution systems (DC Nano-grid) find feasibility and simplicity for integrating renewable energy sources and energy storage. However, integrating the sources and loads in a simple, robust and smart way is still challenging.

High voltage lithium-ion battery should be seriously considered concerning the overcharge/over-discharge risk. Dissipative cell equalization and its performance are studied. Non-dissipative equalization methods are reviewed using an energy flow chart. Typical charging schemes and the related over-charge risk are illustrated. A Lithium-ion battery charging profile based on VCell_Max/Min monitoring is proposed and validated with experimental results in an 8.4kW bidirectional battery charger for DC future home.

For the DC future home emulator testbed, a grid interface converter, i.e. energy control center (ECC) converter, is reviewed with functions identification. A PV system with different configurations is compared to further expand the common MPPT region, and a DC-DC converter is designed as the interface between PV panels and DC bus, facilitating maximum power point tracking (MPPT) as well as fulfill the system energy management requirement. An 8.4kW multi-phase bidirectional battery charger with Si IGBT in DCM operation is designed to achieve high efficiency and to be the interface converter between lithium-ion battery and DC bus, enhancing the battery system management as well as increasing the system reliability.

To integrate all the sources and loads in a simple, reliable and smart way, this thesis proposes a distributed droop control method and smart energy management strategy to enhance the Net-zero electric energy cost. All of the control strategies are applied to the DC future home with interactions among the energy control center (ECC), renewable energy sources, energy storage and load within a day/24 hours. System level energy management control strategies for Net-zero electric energy cost are examined and illustrated. A 10kW future home emulator testbed is built and introduced for concepts validation.



DC Nano-grid, Li-Ion battery, Bidirectional Battery Charger, Net-zero energy and Energy Management