A Deep-learning based Approach for Foot Placement Prediction


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Virginia Tech


Foot placement prediction can be important for exoskeleton and prosthesis controllers, human-robot interaction, or body-worn systems to prevent slips or trips. Previous studies investigating foot placement prediction have been limited to predicting foot placement during the swing phase, and do not fully consider contextual information such as the preceding step or the stance phase before push-off. In this study, a deep learning-based foot placement prediction approach was proposed, where the deep learning models were designed to sequentially process data from three IMU sensors mounted on pelvis and feet. The raw sensor data are pre-processed to generate multi-variable time-series data for training two deep learning models, where the first model estimates the gait progression and the second model subsequently predicts the next foot placement. The ground truth gait phase data and foot placement data are acquired from a motion capture system. Ten healthy subjects were invited to walk naturally at different speeds on a treadmill. In cross-subject learning, the trained models had a mean distance error of 5.93 cm for foot placement prediction. In single-subject learning, the prediction accuracy improved with additional training data, and a mean distance error of 2.60 cm was achieved by fine-tuning the cross-subject validated models with the target subject data. Even from 25-81% in the gait cycle, mean distance errors were only 6.99 cm and 3.22 cm for cross-subject learning and single-subject learning, respectively



Deep Learning, Sensor Fusion, IMU, Foot Placement Prediction