Aqueous humor concentration and prostaglandin E2 suppression efficacy of topically applied ophthalmic ketorolac 0.5% and diclofenac 0.1% solutions in dogs with cataract

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Virginia Tech


Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for their analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties in both human and veterinary patients. Topical ophthalmic NSAIDs are commonly employed in the management of intraocular inflammation (uveitis), corneoconjunctival inflammatory disease and pre-operatively to prevent intraoperative miosis during cataract surgery. Despite their routine application in these clinical scenarios, little is known regarding the corneal penetration and relative anti-inflammatory efficacy of the available topical ophthalmic NSAIDs in the dog. Decisions regarding which of these agents to employ are therefore based upon factors such as cost and ease of acquisition as opposed to established efficacy.

Objectives: To investigate the relative intraocular penetration and anti-inflammatory efficacy of two commonly utilized topical ophthalmic NSAIDs in dogs, diclofenac 0.1% and ketorolac 0.5%.

Animals: Twenty-two client owned dogs (22 operated eyes) presenting to the VTH ophthalmology service for routine cataract surgery for mature or hypermature cataract.

Methods: Subjects were randomized to be treated with either topical ketorolac 0.5% or topical diclofenac 0.1% ophthalmic solutions at specified times in the 24-hour period pre-operatively. Aqueous humor samples were obtained intra-operatively and stored for subsequent evaluation of drug concentrations and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations via ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) analysis, respectively.

Results: Median aqueous humor drug concentrations were significantly higher in dogs treated with ketorolac 0.5% (1311.6 ng/mL) compared to those treated with diclofenac 0.1% (284.9 ng/mL). There was no significant difference in aqueous humor PGE2 concentrations between the two treatment groups. No significant association was determined between aqueous humor drug concentration and PGE2 concentration. There was no significant association between diabetic status and aqueous humor drug concentration or PGE2 concentration in either group.

Conclusions and clinical importance: This study suggests that topical ketorolac 0.5% and diclofenac 0.1% are efficacious in decreasing aqueous humor PGE2 concentrations and are equally suitable for use based on their comparable anti-inflammatory profiles. The results of these assays provide clinically relevant information regarding intraocular penetration and anti-inflammatory efficacy of these medications in dogs with cataract.



uveitis, ketorolac, diclofenac, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, aqueous humor, prostaglandin E2, cataract, dog