Development of a staffing guide for a combined a la carte and type A food service in two senior high schools

TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Tech


The purpose of this study was to develop a guide that could be used in a senior high school for determining the staffing needs for a combined Type A and a la carte food service system. It was felt that a modified work sampling technique could be used in connection with observations made in an actual school food service operation.

Menu patterns and actual menu items for a five-day period were developed for the study. A labor requirement-menu pattern chart was designed to be used to record observations that were made at two minute intervals with the use of a stopwatch. Work processes and work elements were defined and found to be essential in developing a work sampling study.

Labor time was divided into productive and non-productive time. A productivity index was calculated for both schools and found to average 74 percent. The projected staffing guide was based on an assumed productivity index of 80 percent. Findings indicated that both schools would require a reduction of 9 percent in labor time to achieve an 80 percent productivity index.

Based on this investigation, the procedures and techniques used in this study appear to be useful as management aids in determining labor requirements in a school food service operation. The results of this study need to be substantiated by further investigations since the findings are based upon observations from only two situations.



food services