Threatening the harvest: The threat from three invasive insects in late season vineyards
An integral goal of integrated pest management programs is to reduce the pesticide load in the cropping system. Reducing pesticide applications will generally lower pressure to develop pesticide resistance, enhance the presence of benefi cial arthropods, and reduce unintended effects on beneficial arthropods, environment, farm workers, and consumers. It is generally desirable to eliminate late season applications, because such applications would lead to the highest residues at harvest. The fact that growers must observe label pre-harvest intervals (PHIs) is often a complicating factor in vineyard management. In recent years, three invasive species from Asia have become pests in North American vineyards. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss their biology, the relationship of their injury to grape harvest, and possible management approaches.