High Frequency Isolated Power Conversion from Medium Voltage AC to Low Voltage DC


TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Tech


Modern data center power architecture developing trend is analyzed, efficiency improvement method is also discussed. Literature survey of high frequency isolated power conversion system which is also called solid state transformer is given including application, topology, device and magnetic transformer. Then developing trend of this research area is clearly shown following by research target.

State of art wide band gap device including silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) devices are characterized and compared, final selection is made based on comparison result. Mostly used high frequency high power DC/DC converter topology dual active bridge (DAB) is introduced and compared with novel CLLC resonant converter in terms of switching loss and conduction loss point of view. CLLC holds ZVS capability over all load range and smaller turn off current value. This is beneficial for high frequency operation and taken as our candidate. Device loss breakdown of CLLC converter is also given in the end.

Medium voltage high frequency transformer is the key element in terms of insulation safety, power density and efficiency. Firstly, two mostly used transformer structures are compared. Then transformer insulation requirement is referred for 4160 V application according to IEEE standard. Solid insulation material are also compared and selected. Material thickness and insulation distance are also determined. Insulation capability is preliminary verified in FEA electric field simulation. Thirdly two transformer magnetic loss model are introduced including core loss model and litz wire winding loss model. Transformer turn number is determined based on core loss and winding loss trade-off. Different core loss density and working frequency impact is carefully analyzed. Different materials show their best performance among different frequency range. Transformer prototype is developed following designed parameter. We test the developed 15 kW 500 kHz transformer under 4160 V dry type transformer IEEE Std. C57.12.01 standard, including basic lightning test, applied voltage test, partial discharge test.

500 kHz 15 kW CLLC converter gate drive is our design challenge in terms of symmetry propagation delay, cross talk phenomenon elimination and shoot through protection. Gate drive IC is carefully selected to achieve symmetrical propagation delay and high common mode dv/dt immunity. Zero turn off resistor is achieved with minimized gate loop inductance to prevent cross talk phenomenon. Desaturation protection is also employed to provide shoot through protection. Finally 15 kW 500 kHz CLLC resonant converter is developed based on 4160V 500 kHz transformer and tested up to full power level with 98% peak efficiency.



High frequency, medium voltage insulation, CLLC resonant converter, silicon carbide, gallium nitride, transformer design