Terminal Behavioral Modeling of Electric Machines for Real-time Emulation and System-level Analysis

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Virginia Tech


Stability and sustainability of operation of interconnected power converter systems has been an important focus of study in the field of power electronics and power systems. With ever-increasing application of electrical machines by means of electrification of vehicles, airplanes and shipboards, detailed study of the relating dynamics is very important to ensure the proper implementation and stable behavior of the overall system. In this work, the application of the black box approach study of the power converters has been expanded to the electrical machines. Using this modeling method, it is possible of have accurate behavior of electrical and mechanical terminals of the machine without the detailed information about the internal structure of the machine, material characteristics or topology of the machine. Instead, accurate model of electrical and mechanical terminals of the machine are achieved by measuring specific frequency responses of the machine to distinguish dynamic relation of the various electrical and mechanical quantities of the machine. The directly measured frequency responses, are coupled with the dynamics of the source and load in the electrical and mechanical terminals of the machine thus in order to decoupled the described couplings a mathematical process is used that results in decoupling of the controller and drive on the electrical side and the dynamics of the mechanical load and mechanical shaft at the mechanical terminal of the machine. Resulting model is the linear time invariant representation of the electrical machine at a specific operating point. Additionally, this work represents the application of this modeling method for accurate measurement of internal parameters of the machine such as inductances and mechanical inertia and characterization of the mechanical shaft coupler. Resulting unterminated model of the machine is a very important matter of information for system integrators and electrical and mechanical designs related to the application of the machine, to ensure the stable and sustainable operation of the machine. This work for the first time, represents the experimental implementation of this terminal behavioral modeling method for studying electrical machines as well as describes some of the practical limitations of this methodology. By incorporating and integrating a combination of commercially available devices such as frequency response analyzer, Hardware-In-The-Loop (HIL), Power-Hardware-In-The-Loop (PHIL), a test setup has been developed that is capable of control, operate and study arbitrary frame small-signal related measurements required for terminal behavioral study of the electrical machines. Resulting model of the machine that has been extracted from this modeling method is then used to compare in time domain with the real machine in the case of transient change in the mechanical load on the shaft to discover the validity of this modeling procedure.



Keywords: Modeling and simulation, active rectifier, electrical machines, real-time emulation, System stability study, linearization, permanent magnet synchronous machine, induction machine, motor control, Hardware-In-The-Loop (HIL), Power Hardware-I