Effects of Hot Isostatic Pressing on Copper Parts Additively Manufactured via Binder Jetting

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Virginia Tech


Copper is a material of interest to Additive Manufacturing (AM) owing to its outstanding material properties, which finds use in enhanced heat transfer and electronics applications. Its high thermal conductivity and reflectivity cause challenges in the use of Powder Bed Fusion AM systems that involve supplying high-energy lasers or electron beams. This makes Binder Jetting a better alternative as it separates part creation (binding together of powders) from energy supply (post-process sintering). However, it is challenging to fabricate parts of high density using this method due to low packing density of powder while printing. This work aims to investigate the effects of Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) as a secondary post-processing step on the densification of Binder Jet copper parts. By understanding the effects of HIP, the author attempts to create parts of near-full density, and subsequently to quantify the effects of the developed process chain on the material properties of resultant copper parts. The goal is to be able to print parts of desired properties suited to particular applications through control of the processing conditions, and hence the porosity. First, 99.47% dense copper was fabricated using optimized powder configurations and process parameters. Further, the HIP of parts sintered to three densities using different powder configurations was shown to result in an improvement in strength and ductility with porosity in spite of grain coarsening. The strength, ductility, thermal and electrical conductivity were then compared to various physical and empirical models in the literature to develop an understanding of the process-property-performance relationship.



Additive manufacturing, Binder Jetting, Hot Isostatic Pressing, Copper