Modeling and Characterization of Power Electronic Converters with an Integrated Transmission-Line Filter
In this work, a modeling approach is delineated and described in detail; predominantly done in the time domain from low frequency, DC, to high frequencies, 100 MHz. Commercially available computer aided design tools will be used to determine the propagation path in a given structure. Next, an integrated transmission-line filter — fabricated using planar processing technologies — is modeled to accurately predict the EMI characteristics of the system. A method was derived to model the filter's performance in the time-domain while accurately depicting the highly frequency dependant transmission-line properties. A system model of a power factor correction (PFC) boost converter was completed by using active device models for diodes, MOSFETs, and the gate driver. In addition, equivalent circuits were used to characterize high frequency impedances of the passive components.
A PFC boost converter was built and used to validate the model. The PFC operated at a peak output power of 1 kW, switching at 400 kHz, with a universal input ranging from 90-270 VRMS with unity power factor. The time-domain and EMI frequency spectrum waveforms are experimentally measured and agree very well with the simulated values; within 5 dB for EMI.
The transmission-line filter was also manufactured for model verification, and it is tested for the first time with an operating converter: a PFC at 50 W output and 50 VDC input. The small signal characteristics match the model very well. In addition, impedance interactions between the filter, the converter, and the EMI measurement set-up are discussed, evaluated, measured, and improved to minimize undesired resonances and increase low-frequency EMI attenuation. Experimentally measured attenuation provided by the filter in the range from 100 kHz to 100 MHz was 20-50 dBμV. The simulation also shows a similar attenuation, with the exception of one key resonance not seen in the simulation.