Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by Orthohantaviruses in Xiangyun County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China

Abstract

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a zoonotic disease transmitted by several rodent species. We obtained clinical data of HFRS patients from the medical records of the People’s Hospital of Xiangyun County in Dali Prefecture from July 2019 to August 2021. We collected epidemiological data of HFRS patients through interviews and investigated host animals using the night clip or night cage method. We systematically performed epidemiological analyses of patients and host animals. The differences in the presence of rodent activity at home (χ2 = 8.75, p = 0.031 < 0.05), of rodent-proof equipment in the food (χ2 = 9.19, p = 0.025 < 0.05), and of rodents or rodent excrement in the workplace (χ2 = 10.35, p = 0.014 < 0.05) were statistically different in the four clinical types, including mild, medium, severe, and critical HFRS-associated diseases. Furthermore, we conducted molecular detection of orthohantavirus in host animals. The total orthohantavirus infection rate of rodents was 2.72% (9/331); the specific infection rate of specific animal species was 6.10% (5/82) for the Apodemus chevrieri, 100% (1/1) for the Rattus nitidus, 3.77% (2/53) for the Rattus norvegicus, and 12.50% (1/8) for the Crocidura dracula. In this study, a total of 21 strains of orthohantavirus were detected in patients and rodents. The 12 orthohantavirus strains from patients showed a closer relationship with Seoul orthohantavirus (SEOOV) L0199, DLR2, and GZRn60 strains; the six orthohantavirus strains from Rattus norvegicus and Apodemus chevrieri were closely related to SEOOV GZRn60 strain. One strain (XYRn163) from Rattus norvegicus and one strain (XYR.nitidus97) from Rattus nitidus were closely related to SEOOV DLR2 strain; the orthohantavirus strain from Crocidura dracula was closely related to the Luxi orthohantavirus (LUXV) LX309 strain. In conclusion, patients with HFRS in Xuangyun County of Dali Prefecture are predominantly affected by SEOOV, with multiple genotypes of orthohantavirus in host animals, and, most importantly, these orthohantavirus strains constantly demonstrated zoonotic risk in humans.

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Citation
Huang, H.; Fu, M.; Han, P.; Yin, H.; Yang, Z.; Kong, Y.; Wang, B.; Yang, X.; Ren, T.; Zhang, Y. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by Orthohantaviruses in Xiangyun County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. Vaccines 2023, 11, 1477.