Outcome and efficacy expectancies in college student drinking
goals of this study were to modify efficacy and outcome expectancies related to moderate alcohol consumption through written communications and determine subsequent changes in behavioral intentions to consume alcohol. Furthermore, two theoretical models which have attempted to conceptualize the relationships between efficacy and outcome expectancies with regards to their predictive utility were evaluated. The results indicated that outcome and efficacy expectancies related to moderate alcohol use were affected by information specifically targeting them. The results did not find support for the hypothesis that negative and positive outcome information would significantly effect perceived efficacy. Nor were main effects found for efficacy information on either positive or negative outcome expectancies. However, a two-way interaction of negative outcome by efficacy on negative interpersonal outcome expectancies were observed. Subjects who were exposed to low efficacy and low negative outcome information indicated higher expectations that negative outcomes would happen to them if they drank in moderation relative to individuals exposed to high efficacy and low negative outcome information. The study found no support for effects of expectancy information on any of the intentions to drink indices. However, post hoc analyses indicated partial support for the hypothesis that past alcohol use moderates the effects of expectancy information on intentions to consume alcohol. In testing the relative utility of outcome and efficacy expectancies in predicting different indices of alcohol use it was found that efficacy expectancies consistently predicted a significant proportion of variance in subject's future drinks per occasion and future frequency of heavy drinking occasions. outcome expectancies were unable to add to the prediction of future drinks per occasion or future frequency of heavy drinking occasions.
Several of the drinking indices assessed in this study were individualized for each subject. The utility of this approach is discussed in the paper. The study's results are interpreted in relation to different theorists conceptualizations of the relationship between outcome and efficacy expectancies and directions for future research are discussed.