Effects of Large-Scale Penetration of Electric Vehicles on the Distribution Network and Mitigation by Demand Side Management

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Virginia Tech

For the purpose of this study, data for low voltage distribution transformer loading in small communities in Maryland was collected from a local electric utility company. Specifically, analysis was done on three distribution transformers on their system. Each of these transformers serves at least one electric vehicle (EV) owner. Of the three transformers analyzed, Transformer 2 serves eight residential homes and has the highest risk of experiencing an overload if all customers purchase at least one EV. Transformer 2 has a nameplate rating of 25kVA (22.5kW assuming a 0.9 power factor).

With one EV owner, Transformer 2 has a peak load of 46.82kW during the study period between August 4 and August 17, 2013. When seven additional EVs of different types were added in a simulated scenario, the peak load for Transformer 2 increased from 46.82kW to 89.76kW, which is outside the transformer thermal limit. With the implementation of TOU pricing, the peak load was reduced to 56.71kW from 89.76kW. By implementing a combination of TOU pricing and appliance cycling through demand side management (DSM), the peak load was further reduced to 52.27kW.

Distribution Transformer, Electric Vehicle (EV), Time-of-Use (TOU) Pricing