Granular retrosplenial cortex layer 2/3 generates high-frequency oscillations dynamically coupled with hippocampal rhythms across brain states


The granular retrosplenial cortex (gRSC) exhibits high-frequency oscillations (HFOs; ~150 Hz), which can be driven by a hippocampus-subiculum pathway. How the cellular-synaptic and laminar organization of gRSC facilitates HFOs is unknown. Here, we probe gRSC HFO generation and coupling with hippocampal rhythms using focal optogenetics and silicon-probe recordings in behaving mice. ChR2-mediated excitation of CaMKII-expressing cells in L2/3 or L5 induces HFOs, but spontaneous HFOs are found only in L2/3, where HFO power is highest. HFOs couple to CA1 sharp wave-ripples (SPW-Rs) during rest and the descending phase of theta. gRSC HFO current sources and sinks are the same for events during both SPW-Rs and theta oscillations. Independent component analysis shows that high gamma (50–100 Hz) in CA1 stratum lacunosum moleculare is comodulated with HFO power. HFOs may thus facilitate interregional communication of a multisynaptic loop between the gRSC, hippocampus, and medial entorhinal cortex during distinct brain and behavioral states.