Community recommendations on terminology and procedures used in flooding and low oxygen stress research
Apart from playing a key role in important biochemical reactions, molecular oxygen (O2) and its by-products also have crucial signaling roles in shaping plant developmental programs and environmental responses. Even under normal conditions, sharp O2 gradients can occur within the plant when cellular O2 demand exceeds supply, especially in dense organs such as tubers, seeds and fruits. Spatial and temporal variations in O2 concentrations are important cues for plants to modulate development (van Dongen & Licausi, 2015; Considine et al., 2016). Environmental conditions can also expand the low O2 regions within the plant. For example, excessive rainfall can lead to partial or complete plant submergence resulting in O2 deficiency in the root or the entire plant (Voesenek & Bailey-Serres, 2015). Climate change associated increases in precipitation events have made flooding a major abiotic stress threatening crop production and food sustainability. This increased flooding and associated crop losses highlight the urgency of understanding plant flooding responses and tolerance mechanisms.