Mantle temperature and density anomalies: The influence of thermodynamic formulation, melt, and anelasticity

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Deriving a quantitative geodynamical interpretation from tomography models is a difficult task. It is also a timely task, particularly given the many high-resolution tomography models published in recent years. It is important to assess mantle structure in terms of density and temperature anomalies. Here, we provide a new estimation of the conversion factors between seismic velocity anomalies and density anomalies, Rρ/v, and between seismic velocity anomalies and temperature anomalies, RT/v. These conversion factors are found by considering the constraints provided by thermodynamics, the influence of melt, and anelasticity. To determine the elastic component, we performed thermodynamic simulations by considering several compositions representative of normal or plume-enriched mantle. We also explore the effects of the presence of melt on seismic velocity and consider a radial attenuation profile to account for anelasticity. We provide an envelope of acceptable models, by combining the range of possible solutions combining the elastic, anelastic, and melt relationships used in deriving the conversion factors. Several of the frequently used velocity-density scaling relationships are encompassed in this envelope. We assess the validity of our result by calculating temperature anomalies from the tomographic models using our scaling relationships—these anomalies lie within the range constrained by melting temperatures registered in volcanic rocks (±300 K). Further, we show that the geoid model computed through our velocity-density scaling from the S40RTS tomography provides a good fit to the observed geoid.



Tomography models, Melt, Anelasticity, Mantle structure, Density and temperature anomalies