Vasovagal reaction secondary to bladder overdistension in a dog undergoing a unique timeline of medical and surgical treatment for Corynebacterium urealyticum encrusting cystitis: a case report


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Background Corynebacterium urealyticum urinary tract infections can result in a rarely reported condition called encrusting cystitis whereby plaque lesions form on and within the urinary bladder mucosa. Chronic lower urinary tract signs manifest subsequent to the infection-induced cystitis and plaque-induced decreased bladder wall distensibility. Because of the organism’s multidrug resistance and plaque forming capability, infection eradication can be difficult. While systemic antimicrobial therapy is the mainstay of treatment, adjunctive surgical debridement of plaques has been used with relative paucity in such cases, thereby limiting our understanding of this modality’s indications and success rate. Consequently, this report describes the successful eradication of Corynebacterium urealyticum encrusting cystitis utilizing a unique timeline of medical and surgical treatments. Additionally, this represents the first reported veterinary case of a vasovagal reaction due to bladder overdistension.

            Case presentation
            A 6-year-old female spayed Miniature Schnauzer was evaluated for lower urinary tract clinical signs and diagnosed with Corynebacterium urealyticum encrusting cystitis. The infection was persistent despite prolonged courses of numerous oral antimicrobials and urinary acidification. A unique treatment timeline of intravenous vancomycin, intravesical gentamicin, and mid-course surgical debridement ultimately resulted in infection resolution. During surgery, while the urinary bladder was copiously flushed and distended with saline, the dog experienced an acute vasovagal reaction from which it fully recovered.

            Surgical debridement of bladder wall plaques should be considered a viable adjunctive therapy for Corynebacterium urealyticum encrusting cystitis cases failing to respond to systemic antibiotic therapy. The timing in which surgery was employed in this case, relative to concurrent treatment modalities, may be applicable in future cases of this disease as dictated on a case-by-case basis. If surgery is ultimately pursued, overdistension of the urinary bladder should be avoided, or at least minimized as much as possible, so as to prevent the possibility of a vasovagal reaction.




BMC Veterinary Research. 2021 Sep 28;17(1):317