Compressive Creep of a Lightweight, High Strength Concrete Mixture
Concrete undergoes volumetric changes throughout its service life. These changes are a result of applied loads and shrinkage. Applied loads result in an instantaneous recoverable elastic deformation and a slow, time dependent, inelastic deformation called creep. Creep without moisture loss is referred to as basic creep and with moisture loss is referred to as drying creep. Shrinkage is the combination of autogeneous, drying, and carbonation shrinkage. The combination of creep, shrinkage, and elastic deformation is referred to as total strain.
The prestressed concrete beams in the Chickahominy River Bridge have been fabricated with a lightweight, high strength concrete mixture (LTHSC). Laboratory test specimens have been cast using the concrete materials and mixture proportions used in the fabrication of the bridge beams. Two standard cure and two match cure batches have been loaded for 329 and 251 days, respectively.
Prestress losses are generally calculated with the total strain predicted by the American Concrete Institute Committee 209 recommendations, ACI 209, or the European design code, CEB Model Code 90. Two additional models that have been proposed are the B3 model by Bazant and Baweja, and the GL2000 model proposed by Gardner and Lockman. The four models are analyzed to determine the most precise model for the LTHSC mixture. Only ACI 209 considered lightweight aggregates during model development. GL2000 considers aggregate stiffness in the model.
ACI 209 was the best predictor of total strain and individual time dependent deformations for the accelerated cure specimens. CEB Mode Code 90 was the best predictor of total strain for the standard cure specimens. The best overall predictor of time dependent deformations was the GL2000 model for the standard cure specimens.