Augmentation of Jet Impingement Heat Transfer on a Grooved Surface Under Wet and Dry Conditions

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Virginia Tech


Array jet impingement cooling experiments were performed on flat and grooved surfaces with the surface at a constant temperature. For the flat surface, power and temperature measurements were performed to obtain convection coefficients under a wide range of operating conditions such as jet speed, orifice to surface stand-of distance, and open area percentage. Cooling performance (CP) was calculated as the ratio between heat transfer and fan power. An empirical model was developed to predict jet impingement heat transfer taking into account the entrainment effects. Experimental results showed that jet impingement can provide high transfer rates with lower rates of cooling cost in comparison to contemporary conventional techniques in the industry. CP values over 279 were measured which are significantly higher than the standard values of 70 to 95 in current technology. The model enhanced prediction accuracy by taking into account the entrainment effects; an effect that is rarely considered in the literature. Experiments on the grooved surfaces were performed at dry and wet surface conditions. Under dry conditions, results showed 10%~55% improvement in heat transfer when compared to the flat surface. Improvement percentage tends to be higher at wider gaps between the array of orifices and the grooved surface. An improvement of 30%~40% was observed when increasing Re either by increasing orifice diameter or jet speed. Similar improvement was observed at higher flow open area percentages. No significant improvement in heat transfer resulted from decreasing the size of the grooves from 3.56mm to 2.54mm. Similarly, no noticeable change in heat transfer resulted from changing the relative position of the jets striking the surface at the top of the grooves to the bottom of the grooves. Deeper grooves with twice the depth gave statistically similar average heat transfer coefficients as shallower grooves. Under wet conditions, a hybrid cooling technique approach was proposed by using air jets impinging on a grooved surface with the grooves containing water. The approached is proposed and evaluated experimentally for its feasibility as an alternative for cooling towers of thermoelectric power plants. Convection heat and mass transfer coefficients were measured experimentally using the heat mass transfer analogy. Results showed that hybrid jet impingement provided high magnitudes of heat flux at low jet speeds and flow rates. High coefficients of performance CP > 3000, and heat fluxes > 8,000W/m2 were observed. Hybrid jet impingement showed 500% improvement as compared to jet impingement on a dry flat surface. CP values of hybrid jet impingement is 600% to 1,500% more as compared to performance of air-cooled condensers and wet cooling towers. Water use for hybrid jet impingement cooling is efficient since evaporation energy is absorbed from the surface directly instead of cooling air to near wet-bulb temperature.



Array Jet Impingement Cooling, Power Plant, Air-Cooled Condensers, Entrainment Effect, Jet Impingement Model, Discharge Coefficient, Coefficient of Performance, Grooved Surface, Cooling Towers, Hybrid Cooling, Water Consumption.