Energy Modeling of Deceleration Strategies for Electric Vehicles

TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Tech


Rapid adoption of battery electric vehicles means improving energy consumption is a top priority. Regenerative braking converts kinetic energy to electrical energy stored in the battery pack while the vehicle is decelerating. Coasting is an alternative strategy that minimizes energy consumption by decelerating the vehicle using only road load. This work refines a battery electric vehicle model to assess regen, coasting, and other deceleration strategies. A road load model based on public test data calculates tractive effort based on speed and acceleration. Bidirectional Willans lines are the basis of the powertrain model simulating battery energy consumption. Regen braking tractive and powertrain power are modeled backward from prescribed linear velocity curves, and the coasting trajectory is forward modeled given zero tractive power. Decel modes based on zero battery and motor power are also forward modeled. Multi-Mode decel (using a low power mode with regen) is presented as an intermediate strategy. An example vehicle is modeled in fixed-route simulations using these strategies and is scored based on travel time, energy consumption, and bias towards minimizing one of those metrics. Regen braking has the lowest travel time, and coasting the lowest energy consumption, but such bias increases overall cost. Multi-mode strategies lower overall cost by balancing reductions in travel time and energy consumption. The model is sensitive to grade and accessory load fluctuation, making this work adaptable to different vehicles and environments. This work demonstrates the utility of regen braking alternatives that could enhance connected and automated vehicle systems in battery electric vehicles.



Electric Vehicle, Decel, Regenerative Braking, Coasting, Willans Line, Energy Consumption