Preparing Educators to Employ Design-Based Engineering Practices in K-12 Science
The purpose of this study was to characterize a methodological framework for preparing science educators to implement design-based engineering practices to intentionally teach targeted science content. Using a modified Delphi the study looked to answer the following research questions (RQs): RQ1: How should teacher educators prepare K-12 pre-service science teachers to define engineering problems as one of eight NGSS practices all students should acquire through science education?, RQ2: How should teacher educators prepare K-12 pre-service science teachers to design engineering solutions as one of eight NGSS practices all students should acquire through science education? and , RQ3: How should teacher educators prepare K-12 pre-service science teachers to intentionally teach targeted science content using their newly acquired abilities to define engineering problems and design engineering solutions? During Round 1 a panel of 20 (8 science and 12 technology) education experts responded to 5 open-ended questions that focused on identifying the competencies and instructional strategies used to prepare K-12 pre-service science teachers to intently teach science using engineering design. Each question resulted in identifying approximately 50 themes per question. These themes were then used to construct the Round 2 Questionnaire. During Round 2 panelists reached agreement on 283 characteristics of a framework for preparing future science educators. In Round 3, panelists were sent 87 contested Round 2 items. Results of the Round 3 data analysis indicted an additional 31 framework characteristics. The results of this study identify the essential characteristics of a methodological framework that can serve to prepare science educators on the implementation of design-based engineering practices that intentionally teach targeted science content.