Identification of genipin as a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes

dc.contributor.authorWu, Yajunen
dc.contributor.committeechairLiu, Dongminen
dc.contributor.committeememberGilbert, Elizabeth R.en
dc.contributor.committeememberSchmelz, Evaen
dc.contributor.departmentHuman Nutrition, Foods, and Exerciseen
dc.description.abstractType 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and the dysfunction of β-cells. While there are several therapies for T2D, there is no effective treatment that can reverse the functional decline of pancreatic β cells in T2D patients. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a peptide hormone secreted by human intestinal L cells, which can stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of β cells and promote glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), thereby playing a critical role in maintaining glycemic homeostasis. Recently, GLP-1-based medications have been developed for treating T2D. However, most of the GLP-1-based drugs are expensive and have significant adverse effects. Therefore, development of safer and more convenient agents that can mimic the physiologically fed state to promote endogenous GLP-1 secretory function of intestinal L-cells to improve glucose homeostasis holds great potential for the prevention and treatment of T2D. This project aimed to examine whether natural compound genipin promotes intestinal GLP-1 secretion and exerts anti-diabetic effects. I found that genipin rapidly increased GLP-1 secretion from intestinal L-cells, with 10 and 100 μM concentration inducing significant incretin hormone release. L-cells exposed to genipin displayed a rapid increase in intracellular [Ca²⁺]i and the activity of phospholipase C (PLC). Inhibition of PLC ablated genipin-stimulated Ca²⁺] increase and GLP-1 secretion, suggesting that genipin-induced GLP-1 release from the cells depends on the PLC/Ca²⁺ pathway. In vivo, genipin reduced the non-fasting and fasting blood glucose levels, improved insulin resistance, and protected again high fat diet-induced liver damage. All together, these data indicate that genipin is a naturally occurring anti-diabetic agent, which could be a pharmaceutical lead for developing anti-diabetic drugs.en
dc.description.abstractgeneralMore than 34 million Americans are suffering from diabetes, with over 90% of these cases being type 2 diabetes (T2D). Loss of β-cell mass and function is central to the deterioration of glycemic control over time in T2D. Therefore, preservation or improvement of β-cell mass and its insulin secretory function could prevent and treat T2D. While there are several pharmaceutical therapies for T2D, no effective treatment is available for reversing functional decline of pancreatic β-cells in T2D patients. It has been well recognized that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which is an incretin hormone secreted from intestinal L-cells, plays a critical role in maintaining glycemic homeostasis via potentiating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and promoting β-cell proliferation. This present work is to determine whether natural compound genipin promotes intestinal GLP-1 secretion and thus exerts anti-diabetic effect.en
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.subjectL cellsen
dc.subjectblood glucoseen
dc.titleIdentification of genipin as a potential treatment for type 2 diabetesen
dc.typeThesisen and Cellular Scienceen Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen


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