Atractylodin Suppresses TGF-β-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice

Abstract

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by fibrotic change in alveolar epithelial cells and leads to the irreversible deterioration of pulmonary function. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in type 2 lung epithelial cells contributes to excessive collagen deposition and plays an important role in IPF. Atractylodin (ATL) is a kind of herbal medicine that has been proven to protect intestinal inflammation and attenuate acute lung injury. Our study aimed to determine whether EMT played a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and whether EMT can be utilized as a therapeutic target by ATL treatment to mitigate IPF. To address this topic, we took two steps to investigate: 1. Utilization of anin vitro EMT model by treating alveolar epithelial cells (A549 cells) with TGF-β1 followed by ATL treatment for elucidating the underlying pathways, including Smad2/3 hyperphosphorylation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway overexpression, Snail and Slug upregulation, and loss of E-cadherin. Utilization of an in vivo lung injury model by treating bleomycin on mice followed by ATL treatment to demonstrate the therapeutic effectiveness, such as, less collagen deposition and lower E-cadherin expression. In conclusion, ATL attenuates TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

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Citation

Chang, K.-W.; Zhang, X.; Lin, S.-C.; Lin, Y.-C.; Li, C.-H.; Akhrymuk, I.; Lin, S.-H.; Lin, C.-C. Atractylodin Suppresses TGF-β-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11152.