Conidial production and viability of Calonectria pseudonaviculata on infected boxwood leaves as affected by temperature, wetness, and dryness periods

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Calonectria pseudonaviculata causes lesions on boxwood leaves and twigs. Controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature and leaf wetness period on C. pseudonaviculata sporulation on diseased (cv. Suffruticosa) leaves and of dryness periods and high temperature on conidial survival. Infected leaves were incubated in moist chambers and subjected to six temperatures (9, 13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) and six leaf wetness periods (0, 12, 24, 40, 48, and 72 h). Spore production was influenced significantly by wetness period, temperature, and their interaction. Increasing duration of leaf wetness and increasing temperature generally increased sporulation, with no sporulation occurring at 29°C or 9 and 13°C, except at 72 h of wetness exposure, while it was optimal at 21°C. Detached leaves with profuse conidia were subjected to a range of drying (relative humidity at 65%) times (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h) at two temperatures of 21 and 29°C. Conidia were then harvested and plated on water agar. Germinating conidia were counted to measure the spore viability. Spore mortality increased with increasing dryness duration at both temperatures but occurred more quickly and severely at 29 than 21°C. Overall, this study extended biological knowledge of conditions required for crucial stages of the C. pseudonaviculata disease cycle and the obtained results will be vital for developing boxwood blight forecasting and management tools.



Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Agronomy, Plant Sciences, Agriculture, Cylindrocladium buxicola, spore survival, sporulation potential, weather parameters, CYLINDROCLADIUM-BUXICOLA, CAUSAL AGENT, SUSCEPTIBILITY, SPORULATION, BLIGHT, PLANT, Plant Biology & Botany, 0605 Microbiology, 0607 Plant Biology, 0703 Crop and Pasture Production