Turbulent Simulations of a Buoyant Jet-in-Crossflow

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Virginia Tech


A lack of complex analysis for a thermally buoyant jet in a stratified crossflow has motivated the studies presented. A computational approach using the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations (NSE) under the Boussinesq approximation is utilized. Temperature and salinity scalar transport equations are utilized in conjunction with a linear equation of state (EOS) to obtain the density field and thus the buoyancy forcing. Comparing simulation data to experimental data of a point heat source in a stratified environment provides general agreement between the aforementioned computational model and the physics studied. From the literature surveyed, no unified agreement was presented on the selection of turbulence models for the jet--in--crossflow (JICF) problem. For this reason, a comparison is presented for a standard Reynolds--Averaged Navier--Stokes (RANS) and a hybrid Reynolds--Averaged Navier--Stokes/large eddy simulation (HRLES) turbulence model. The mathematical differences are outlined as well as the implications each model has on solving a buoyant jet in stratified crossflow. The RANS model provides a general over prediction of all flow quantities when comparing to the HRLES models. Studies involving the removal of the thermal component inside the jet as well as varying the environmental stratification strength have largely determined that these affects do not alter the near-field in any significant way, at least for a high Reynolds number JICF. The velocity ratio of the jet being the ratio of the jet velocity to the free--stream flow velocity. Deviating from a velocity ratio of one has provided information on the variability of the forcing on the plate the jet exits from, as well as in the integrated energy quantities far downstream of the jet's exit. The departures presented here show that any deviation from the unity value provides an increase in the overall forces seen by the plate. It was also found that the change in the integrated potential and turbulent kinetic energies is proportional to the deviation from a unity velocity ratio.



HRLES, JICF, buoyant, crossflow, DES, Computational fluid dynamics, OpenFOAM, near-field