NoiseLearner: An Unsupervised, Content-agnostic Approach to Detect Deepfake Images

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Virginia Tech


Recent advancements in generative models have resulted in the improvement of hyper- realistic synthetic images or "deepfakes" at high resolutions, making them almost indistin- guishable from real images from cameras. While exciting, this technology introduces room for abuse. Deepfakes have already been misused to produce pornography, political propaganda, and misinformation. The ability to produce fully synthetic content that can cause such mis- information demands for robust deepfake detection frameworks. Most deepfake detection methods are trained in a supervised manner, and fail to generalize to deepfakes produced by newer and superior generative models. More importantly, such detection methods are usually focused on detecting deepfakes having a specific type of content, e.g., face deepfakes. How- ever, other types of deepfakes are starting to emerge, e.g., deepfakes of biomedical images, satellite imagery, people, and objects shown in different settings. Taking these challenges into account, we propose NoiseLearner, an unsupervised and content-agnostic deepfake im- age detection method. NoiseLearner aims to detect any deepfake image regardless of the generative model of origin or the content of the image. We perform a comprehensive evalu- ation by testing on multiple deepfake datasets composed of different generative models and different content groups, such as faces, satellite images, landscapes, and animals. Further- more, we include more recent state-of-the-art generative models in our evaluation, such as StyleGAN3 and probabilistic denoising diffusion models (DDPM). We observe that Noise- Learner performs well on multiple datasets, achieving 96% accuracy on both StyleGAN and StyleGAN2 datasets.



deepfake, deepfake detection, generative models, GAN, artificial intelligence, Machine learning, security in Machine learning