Simultaneous Three-Dimensional Mapping and Geolocation of Road Surface


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Virginia Tech


This thesis paper presents a simultaneous 3D mapping and geolocation of road surface technique that combines local road surface mapping and global camera localization. The local road surface is generated by structure from motion (SFM) with multiple views and optimized by Bundle Adjustment (BA). A system is developed for the global reconstruction of 3D road surface. Using the system, the proposed technique globally reconstructs 3D road surface by estimating the global camera pose using the Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF) and integrates it with local road surface reconstruction techniques. The proposed AEKF-based technique uses image shift as prior. And the camera pose was corrected with the sparse low-accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS) data and digital elevation map (DEM). The AEKF adaptively updates the covariance of uncertainties such that the estimation works well in environment with varying uncertainties. The image capturing system is designed with the camera frame rate being dynamically controlled by vehicle speed read from on-board diagnostics (OBD) for capturing continuous data and helping to remove the effects of moving vehicle shadow from the images with a Random Sample and Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm. The proposed technique is tested in both simulation and field experiment, and compared with similar previous work. The results show that the proposed technique achieves better accuracy than conventional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) method and achieves smaller translation error than other similar other works.



Extended Kalman Filter, Global Localization, Adaptive Estimation, Road Surface Mapping, Sparse Global Position, Visual Odometry