A Method for Measuring Spatially Varying Equivalence Ratios with Application to Thermoacoustics

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Virginia Tech


Computed tomography for flame chemiluminescence emissions allows for 3D spatially resolved flame measurements to be acquired using a series of discrete viewing angle camera images. To determine fuel/air ratios, the ratio of excited radical species (OH*/CH*) emissions using chemiluminescence can be employed. Following the process of high-resolution tomography reconstructions in this work allowed for flame tomography coupled with chemiluminescence emissions to be used for spatially resolved phase averaged equivalence ratio measurements. This is important as variations in local equivalence ratios can have a profound effect on flame behavior including but not limited to thermoacoustic instability, NOx and CO formation, and flame stabilization. Local equivalence ratios are determined from a OH*/CH* ratio of tomographically reconstructed intensity fields and relating them to equivalence ratio. The correlation of OH*/CH* to equivalence ratio is derived from an axisymmetric, commercially available flat flame burner (Holthuis and Associates Burner). To relate intensity field imaging (camera coordinate system) during the tomographic reconstruction to the real-world coordinate system of the burner a calibration procedure was performed and then validated. A calibration plate with 39 non-coplanar points was used in this procedure. It was then validated by comparing the Abel inverted flame images of the axisymmetric Holthuis and Associates burner with the tomographic reconstructed images. Results show a successful tomographic reconstruction of thermoacoustic self-excited cycle concluding equivalence ratio fluctuations coinciding with the 1st dominate frequency of the pressure fluctuations and influenced by a 2nd harmonic frequency.



Tomography, Chemiluminescence, Thermoacoustic Instability, Camera Calibration, Flat Flame