Fasting and postprandial trimethylamine N-oxide in sedentary and endurance-trained males following a short-term high-fat diet


Gut bacteria release trimethylamine (TMA) from dietary substrates. TMA is absorbed and is subsequently oxidized in the liver to produce trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Plasma TMAO levels are positively correlated with risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). High-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been reported to increase fasting and postprandial TMAO in sedentary individuals. However, whether the increase in TMAO with consumption of an HFD is observed in endurance-trained males is unknown. Healthy, sedentary (n = 17), and endurance-trained (n = 7) males consumed a 10-day eucaloric diet comprised of 55% carbohydrate, 30% total fat, and <10% saturated fat prior to baseline testing. Blood samples were obtained in a fasted state and for a 4-hour high-fat challenge (HFC) meal at baseline and then again following 5-day HFD (30% carbohydrate, 55% total fat, and 25% saturated fat). Plasma TMAO and TMA-moiety (choline, betaine, L-carnitine) concentrations were measured using isocratic ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Age (23 ±3 vs. 22 ± 2 years) and body mass index (23.0 ± 3.0 vs. 23.5 ± 2.1 kg/m2) were similar (both p > 0.05) in the sedentary and endurance-trained group, respectively. VO2max was significantly higher in the endurance-trained compared with sedentary males (56.7 ± 8.2 vs. 39.9 ± 6.0 ml/kg/min). Neither the HFC nor the HFD evoked a detectable change in plasma TMAO (p > 0.05) in either group. Future studies are needed to identify the effects of endurance training on TMAO production.



endurance-trained, high-fat diet, sedentary, trimethylamine N-oxide, 0606 Physiology, 1103 Clinical Sciences, 1116 Medical Physiology