Effects of physiological state, temperature, water, and extended mixing on low-fat, high-added water frankfurters

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Virginia Tech


Frankfurters with 15% fat and 25% USDA added water were formulated with either prerigor or postrigor lean meat and postrigor fat using typical manufacturing practices. These frankfurters were compared to others produced using a 30 min extended mixing process (EM) on the lean component at either 2° or 16°C and either 30 or 100% of the formulation water. Results indicated that prerigor lean offered no advantages in the cooking yield nor reduction in fluid accumulation in vacuum packaged product stored (5°C) for 30 days. In addition, prerigor treatments had lower (P<0.05) Instron hardness and distance to fracture values than postrigor treatments. EM with 30% of the formulation water resulted in lower distance to fracture (P<0.05), cohesiveness (P<0.05), springiness (P<0.05), and hardness (P<0.07) values compared to those with 100%. In general, the texture of EM frankfurters was not significantly different from traditionally processed products, though independent variables beyond physiological state could not be separately tested. Traditional mixing resulted in higher L*, a*, and b* values than EM treatments. Within EM treatments, mixing with only 30% of the water resulted in significantly lower CIE a* values, but increased L* and b* values.