Probability of detection of electric vehicles with and without added warning sounds


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Acoustic Society of America


Detection performance as a function of distance was measured for 16 subjects who pressed a button upon aurally detecting the approach of an electric vehicle. The vehicle was equipped with loudspeakers that broadcast one of four additive warning sounds. Other test conditions included two vehicle approach speeds [10 and 20 km/h (kph)] and two background noise conditions (55 and 60 dBA). All of the test warning sounds were designed to be compliant with FMVSS 141 proposed regulations in regard to the overall sound pressure levels around the vehicle and in 1/3 octave band levels. Previous work has provided detection results as average vehicle detection distance. This work provides the results as probability of detection (Pd) as a function of distance. The curves provide insight into the false alarm rate when the vehicle is far away from the listeners as well and the Pd at the mean detection distance. Results suggest that, although the test sounds provide an average detection distance that exceeds the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration minimum at the two test speeds, Pd is not always 100% at those distances, particularly at the 10 kph. At the higher speed of 20 kph, the tire-road interaction noise becomes dominant, and the detection range is greatly extended.