Probability of detection of electric vehicles with and without added warning sounds

dc.contributor.authorRoan, Michael J.en
dc.contributor.authorNeurauter, Lukeen
dc.contributor.authorSong, Miaoen
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Martyen
dc.contributor.departmentMechanical Engineeringen
dc.contributor.departmentVirginia Tech Transportation Instituteen
dc.description.abstractDetection performance as a function of distance was measured for 16 subjects who pressed a button upon aurally detecting the approach of an electric vehicle. The vehicle was equipped with loudspeakers that broadcast one of four additive warning sounds. Other test conditions included two vehicle approach speeds [10 and 20 km/h (kph)] and two background noise conditions (55 and 60 dBA). All of the test warning sounds were designed to be compliant with FMVSS 141 proposed regulations in regard to the overall sound pressure levels around the vehicle and in 1/3 octave band levels. Previous work has provided detection results as average vehicle detection distance. This work provides the results as probability of detection (Pd) as a function of distance. The curves provide insight into the false alarm rate when the vehicle is far away from the listeners as well and the Pd at the mean detection distance. Results suggest that, although the test sounds provide an average detection distance that exceeds the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration minimum at the two test speeds, Pd is not always 100% at those distances, particularly at the 10 kph. At the higher speed of 20 kph, the tire-road interaction noise becomes dominant, and the detection range is greatly extended.en
dc.description.notesThe authors of this report would like to acknowledge the support of the stakeholders of the National Surface Transportation Safety Center for Excellence (NSTSCE): Tom Dingus from the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute; John Capp from General Motors Corporation; Chris Hayes from Travelers Insurance; Terri Hallquist and Nicole Michel from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration; Cathy McGhee from the Virginia Department of Transportation and the Virginia Transportation Research Council; and Jane Terry from the National Safety Council. Additional project funding was received from the General Motors Corporation. The NSTSCE stakeholders have jointly funded this research for the purpose of developing and disseminating advanced transportation safety techniques and innovations.en
dc.description.sponsorshipGeneral Motors Corporation; NSTSCEen
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
dc.publisherAcoustic Society of Americaen
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.titleProbability of detection of electric vehicles with and without added warning soundsen
dc.title.serialJournal of the Acoustical Society of Americaen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden


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