Build a Bone Bank with 3-A-Day After-School Education Program for Elementary Students
Objective: To determine whether a social cognitive theory guided nutrition educational intervention in an after-school program is associated with improved nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors for fourth and fifth grade participants.
Design: A prospective comparative study with a quasi-experimental design over a six month period. Questionnaires were collected at baseline and at the end of the program for students at the intervention and comparison schools. Follow-up questionnaires were collected at the intervention school three months post program.
Subjects/Setting: Fourth and fifth grade students enrolled in an after-school program targeted to reach students performing below grade level and/or living below the poverty level at an elementary school in southwest Virginia. Fourth and fifth grade students at another county elementary school with similar demographics served as comparison participants.
Main Outcome Measures: Daily food intake, dairy intake, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, environment, self-efficacy for consuming dairy products, and food and activity beliefs.
Statistical Analysis: Measures of central tendency (mean, median, and variance) were performed to describe participants. Independent t-tests (p<0.05) were used to compare changes from pre to post-questionnaire by treatment group. Paired t-tests (p<0.05) were used to test for differences from pre to post-questionnaire within group. Chi square analysis (p<0.05) was conducted to further investigate changes between groups.
Results: Intervention participants significantly increased previous day's milk consumption (p=.006) and plans to drink low-fat milk instead of regular milk (p =.047) from pre to post-program. Significant change was also observed in previous day's milk consumption change from pre to post between groups (p=.004).
Conclusion: Participation in an after-school program with nutrition education could change daily milk consumption and plans to drink low-fat over regular milk.
Applications: After-school nutrition interventions can be effective in changing milk intake and plans to consume low-fat milk.