Four Branch Diversity Combining and Adaptive Beamforming Measurements Using Mobile Arrays at 2.05 GHz
Mobile arrays employing diversity combining and adaptive beamforming techniques overcome multipath fading, improve coverage, and increase capacity in wireless communications systems. In this thesis, diversity combining and adaptive beamforming performance of different four element arrays for mobile (vehicular speed) and portable (pedestrian speed) terminals is investigated. The performance of four element arrays with different configurations and with different element patterns is compared using the square array of four half-wave dipole elements as the baseline. Results from diversity and beamforming measurements, performed in urban and suburban environments for both line-of-sight (LOS) and obstructed multipath channels are used to analyze and compare the performances of different four element arrays. At cumulative probabilities of 10%, 1% and 0.1%, diversity gain and improvement in signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) are calculated from the diversity combining measurements and interference rejection measurements respectively.
Experimental results illustrating the dependence of diversity gain on power imbalance, envelope correlation and diversity-combining scheme are presented. Measurements were performed at 2.05 GHz using the handheld antenna array testbed (HAAT). Low profile linear arrays are shown to provide diversity gain values of 5 to 8 dB and 11 to 16 dB, respectively for switched and maximal ratio combining at the 99% reliability level in non-line-of-sight urban channel. Interference cancellation of 24 to 28 dB was recorded in urban and suburban line-of-sight (LOS) channels for the sectorized square array. Results of vehicular measurements with the arrays mounted on a ground plane supported above the vehicle roof are also reported.