Coupled Adjoint-based Sensitivity Analysis using a FSI Method in Time Spectral Form
A time spectral and coupled adjoint based sensitivity analysis of rotor blade is carried out in this study. The time spectral method is an efficient technique to solve unsteady periodic problems by transforming unsteady equation of motion to a steady state one. Due to the availability of the governing equations in the steady form, the steady form of the adjoint equations can be applied for the sensitivity analysis of the coupled fluid-structure system. An expensive computational time and memory requirement for the unsteady adjoint sensitivity analysis is thus avoided. A coupled analysis of fluid, structural, and flight dynamics is carried out through a CFD/CSD/CA coupling procedure that combines FSI analysis with enforced trim condition. Coupled sensitivity analysis results and their validations are presented and compared with aerodynamics only sensitivity analysis results. The fluid-structure coupled adjoint based sensitivity analysis will be applied to the shape optimization of a rotor blade in the future work. Minimization of required power is the objective of the optimization problem with constraints on thrust and drag of the rotor. The bump functions are considered as the design variables. Rotor blade shape changes are obtained by using the bump function on the surface of the airfoil sections along the span.