A Multilevel Analysis of Student Engagement, Teacher Quality, and Math Achievement
This study examined the relationships between math engagement, teacher quality, school factors, and math achievement in middle school students. This study used the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) data from the 2007 wave. The data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). The results EFA and CFA showed that students’ engagement in math classrooms consists of three dimensions: behavior, cognition, and emotion. The results provided evidence in supporting the multidimensional theory of student engagement, and provided a well-developed instrument that could measure students’ math engagement. The findings of HLM analysis indicated that students’ emotional engagement had a positive association with math achievement. In addition, teacher content knowledge displayed a positive effect on achievement, and teacher subject knowledge preparation and students’ emotional engagement showed an interactional effect on achievement. What’s more, school SES was a significant factor that influences math achievement. The findings suggested that students’ math achievement was not only related to students’ engagement, but also varied across class and school level factors. The study had both theoretical and practical significance, providing valuable insights for math education and math learning.