Evaluation of Peanut Skin Extract, Grape Seed Extract, and Grape Seed Extract Fractions to Reduce Populations of Select Foodborne Pathogens
Grape seed extract (GSE) and peanut skin extract (PSE) are waste products in the wine and peanut industries. Both extracts have high concentrations of polyphenols, known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. A subcategory of polyphenol is procyanidin, which can be divided into two types, type A and type B. Type A (PSE), contains two single bonds connecting the phenolic groups while type B (GSE), contains one single bond connecting the phenolic groups. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the two extracts was evaluated for their antimicrobial effect on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium using the pour plate method. GSE was found to have a significantly lower MIC (p ≤ 0.05) than PSE for L. monocytogenes (GSE=60.60ppm, PSE=not found), S. aureus (GSE=38.63ppm, PSE=51.36ppm), and S. Typhimurium (GSE=45.73ppm, PSE=60.60ppm). There was no significant difference in inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 (GSE=47.44ppm, PSE=51.13ppm). Since GSE, contributed to greater pathogen inhibition, its extract was fractionated into monomer and oligomers components. Growth curves of all four pathogens inoculated in the monomer and oligomer fractions were compared using the BioScreen method. Oligomers inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and E. coli O157:H7 while monomers inhibited growth of S. Typhimurium. These results indicate that an extract with type B procyanidins that are high in oligomers may be more effective as antimicrobials. Type B procyanidins have also been shown to prevent bacterial adhesion, as is the case with urinary tract infections, and may aid in the prevention of biofilms.