Micro-optical fiber devices used with modal domain sensing
In order to develop more compact optical fiber sensing systems, modal filtering can be performed in-line by using micro-optical devices. Two such devices are a laterally offset few-moded optical fiber mechanical splice and a modal conversion optical fiber coupler. A third device, the air-gap splice used with multimode fibers, can examine the modal content of an optical fiber. A basic theoretical understanding on how these devices operate is reviewed. A splice loss calculation for few-moded optical fibers is presented. Applications of the asymmetrical few-moded mechanical optical fiber splice, the modal conversion coupler, and the air-gap splice are discussed.