Methods of preserving and enhancing fermentation and nutritional value of caged layer waste-wheat straw silages fed to sheep

dc.contributor.authorAyangbile, Gbemiga A.en
dc.contributor.departmentAnimal Scienceen
dc.date.accessioned2016-02-01T14:44:51Zen
dc.date.available2016-02-01T14:44:51Zen
dc.date.issued1986en
dc.description.abstractThree experiments were conducted with fresh caged layer waste collected within 24 h after excretion. The waste was stored uncovered for 42 d in polyethylene lined 210 liter metal drums. In the first experiment, waste was treated with no additive, 1 and 1.5% formaldehyde, 1.5 and 2% sodium metabisulfite and 1. 5 and 2% propionic/formic acid (1: 1, w/w). In the second experiment, the additives used were: none, 1% formaldehyde, 1.5% sodium metabisulfite, 1.5% propionic/formic (1: 1, w/w), 10% dry sugar cane molasses and 10% dry molasses plus 2% sodium chloride (salt). In this experiment, the wastes were ensiled with wheat straw (60:40, wet basis) in 4-liter cardboard containers double lined with polyethylene with the following additives: control, 10% dry molasses, silage inoculant or 10% dry molasses plus inoculant. In the third study, the preservatives were: untreated, 1% formaldehyde, 10% dry molasses or 10% dry molasses and 2% salt. After 42 d, treated wastes and straw (60:40) were ensiled with 10% dry molasses in 210 liter metal drums doubled lined with polyethylene. A metabolism trial was conducted with 30 crossbred wethers fed a basal diet alone or with silages containing the wastes which had been treated with the preservatives (1:1, dry basis). In all studies, putrefaction, maggot infestation and dark color were observed for untreated waste. The tops of the wastes treated with sodium metabisulfite and formaldehyde were covered with mold. Formaldehyde-treated waste maintained a stable pH, and water-soluble carbohydrate level. The higher level of propionic/formic acid was effective against visible deterioration. The pH of the silages containing molasses-treated waste was lower than for silages containing control or chemically-treated wastes. Adding molasses at ensiling reduced pH and increased lactic acid. Digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were lower (P<.05) for the diet containing silage made from untreated waste, compared to diets containing silage made from treated waste. In all studies, putrefaction, maggot infestation and dark color were observed for untreated waste. The tops of the wastes treated with sodium metabisulfite and formaldehyde were covered with mold. Formaldehyde treated waste maintained a stable pH, and water-soluble carbohydrate level. The higher level of propionic/formic acid was effective against visible deterioration. The pH of the the silages containing molasses-treated waste was lower than for silages containing control or chemically-treated wastes. Adding molasses at ensiling reduced pH and increased lactic acid. Digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were lower (P<.05) for the diet containing silage made from untreated waste, compared to diets containing silage made from treated waste.en
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen
dc.format.extentviii, 104 leavesen
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/64564en
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.publisherVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
dc.relation.isformatofOCLC# 14769257en
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subject.lccLD5655.V855 1986.A926en
dc.subject.lcshAnimal waste as feeden
dc.subject.lcshSheep -- Feeding and feedsen
dc.subject.lcshSilage -- Fermentationen
dc.titleMethods of preserving and enhancing fermentation and nutritional value of caged layer waste-wheat straw silages fed to sheepen
dc.typeThesisen
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten
thesis.degree.disciplineAnimal Scienceen
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
thesis.degree.levelmastersen
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen
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