Power System Disturbance Analysis and Detection Based on Wide-Area Measurements
Wide-area measurement systems (WAMS) enable the monitoring of overall bulk power systems and provide critical information for understanding and responding to power system disturbances and cascading failures. The North American Frequency Monitoring Network (FNET) takes GPS-synchronized wide-area measurements in a low-cost, easily deployable manner at the 120 V distribution level, which presents more opportunities to study power system dynamics. This work explores the topics of power system disturbance analysis and detection by utilizing the wide-area measurements obtained in the distribution networks.
In this work, statistical analysis is conducted based on the major disturbances in the North American Interconnections detected by the FNET situation awareness system between 2006 and 2008. Typical frequency patterns of the generation and load loss events are analyzed for the three North American power Interconnections: the Eastern Interconnection (EI), the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The linear relationship between frequency deviation and frequency change rate during generation/loss mismatch events is verified by the measurements in the three Interconnections. The relationship between the generation/load mismatch and system frequency is also examined based on confirmed generation loss events in the EI system. And a power mismatch estimator is developed to improve the current disturbance detection program. Various types of power system disturbances are examined based on frequency, voltage and phase angle to obtain the event signatures in the measurements.
To better understand the propagation of disturbances in the power system, an automated visualization tool is developed that can generate frequency and angle replays of disturbances, as well as image snapshots. This visualization tool correlates the wide-area measurements with geographical information by displaying the measurements over a geographical map. This work makes an attempt to investigate the visualization of the angle profile in the wide-area power system to improve situation awareness.
This work explores the viability of relying primarily on distribution-level measurements to detect and identify line outages, a topic not yet addressed in previous works. Line outage sensitivity at different voltage levels in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) system is examined to analyze the visibility of disturbances from the point of view of wide-area measurements. The sensor placement strategy is proposed for better observability of the line trip disturbances. The characteristics of line outages are studied extensively with simulations and real measurements. Line trip detection algorithms are proposed that employs the information in frequency and phase angle measurements. In spite of the limited FDR coverage and confirmed training cases, an identification algorithm is developed which uses the information in the real measurements as well as the simulation cases to determine the tripped line.