Spatial-temporal model for predicting spring hatch of the spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae)
The effect of temperature on the rate of spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), egg development was investigated for a population in Pennsylvania. Mean developmental duration (days ± SE) for egg hatch was evaluated at five constant temperatures of 19.9, 24.2, 25.1, 26.7, and 30°C using egg masses laid during the fall of 2018 and collected in 2019 from Berks Co., Pennsylvania. Base temperature thresholds for egg development were estimated using intercept and slope parameters by fitting a linear relationship between average temperature and developmental rate for the Pennsylvania study, two Korean studies, and the combined data sets. The base threshold estimates were then used to calculate seasonal accumulated degree-days (ADD) and construct logistic equations for predicting cumulative proportion of hatch in the spring. The fitted logistic prediction equations were then graphed against the egg hatch observations from field sites in Pennsylvania (2017) and Virginia (2019). When base temperature estimates from the three studies and combined studies were used to calculate ADD, the logistic models predicted similar timing for seasonal egg hatch. Because the slopes and intercepts for these four data sets were not statistically different, a base temperature threshold of 10.4°C derived from the combined model is a good estimate for computing ADD to predict spotted lanternfly spring emergence across a spatio-temporal scale. The combined model was linked with open source weather database and mapping programs to provide spatiotemporal prediction maps to aid pest surveillance and management efforts for spotted lanternfly.