Vibration Suppression Using Smart Materials in the Presence of Temperature Changes
Aircraft and satellite structures are exposed to a wide range of temperatures during normal operation cycles. These fluctuations in temperature may result in significant changes of the structural dynamics. Aircraft, automotive, and satellite structures are also subject to various vibration sources. Passive and active vibration suppression techniques have been developed to minimize acoustic noise and fatigue stress damage. Featuring low weight solutions and high performance, active control techniques are becoming increasingly common. Structures with varying dynamics require more sophisticated active control techniques, such as adaptive control.
This research uses a special vibration test rig for evaluating the performance of different vibration suppression systems on a representative aircraft panel. The test panel is clamped rigidly in a frame and can be excited in various frequencies with an electromagnetic shaker. To simulate temperature fluctuations the temperature on the panel can be increased up to 65°C (150°F). Smart material based sensors and actuators are used to interface the mechanical system with the electronic controller. The active controller utilizes three positive position feedback (PPF) filters implemented through a digital signal processor board. This research develops two different adaptation methods to perform vibration suppression in the presence of thermally induced frequency changes of the representative panel. To adjust the PPF filter parameters an open-loop adaptation method and an auto-tuning method are investigated. The open-loop adaptation method uses a measurement of the plate temperature and a look-up table with pre-determined parameters to update the filters accordingly. The auto-tuning methods identifies the frequencies of the poles and zeros in the structure's collocated transfer function. From the knowledge of the pole and zero locations the optimal PPF parameters are calculated online.
The results show that both adaptation methods are capable of reducing the vibration levels of the test specimen over the temperature range of interest. Three PPF filters with parameter adaptation through temperature measurement achieve magnitude reductions of the resonance peaks as high as 13.6 decibel. Using the auto-tuning method resonance peak reductions up to 17.4 decibel are possible. The pole/zero identification routine proves to detect the frequencies correctly. The average identification error remained at around one percent even in the presence of external disturbances.