Use of Direct-Fed Microbes To Enhance Shrimp Resistance to a Vibrio Parahaemolyticus Strain Causing Early Mortality Syndrome

dc.contributor.authorTaylor, Zachary Williamen
dc.contributor.committeechairKuhn, David D.en
dc.contributor.committeememberSmith, Stephen A.en
dc.contributor.committeememberStevens, Ann M.en
dc.contributor.committeememberWilliams, Robert C.en
dc.contributor.departmentFood Science and Technologyen
dc.description.abstractEarly Mortality Syndrome (EMS) is a widespread bacterial infection of shrimp, attributed to pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains (VP-EMS). This disease threatens aquaculture production and global food security. A valuable and alternative approach to using antibiotics for pathogen control, is the practice of incorporating direct-fed microbes (DFM) or probiotics. In order to evaluate the hypothesis that probiotics (specific strains of Bacillus subtilis spores) are able to provide shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, protection to the EMS disease, a pathogen growth model, disease challenge model, and probiotic feed coating methodologies were developed and refined, allowing independent shrimp probiotic trials to be piloted. A single probiotic strain of Bacillus subtilis: O14VRQ and a blend of Bacillus subtilis strains: Plus10, were evaluated as feed additives or as water additions, for their efficacy. Accordingly, two independent trials were conducted in which shrimp were fed daily with a probiotic-coated feed for seven days, before a challenge with VP-EMS. Each trial consisted of a negative control (no VP-EMS exposure, no probiotic) and positive control (VP-EMS exposure, no probiotic), with five additional probiotic treatment groups, which were fed and exposed to VP-EMS in the same manner as the positive control. Shrimp were observed for clinical signs of disease after the initial exposure and were continuously exposed every 24 hours until 50% of the population remained in the positive control treatment. Both probiotics studied were shown to significantly (p < 0.05) improve shrimp survival. Overall the data presented in this work demonstrates that probiotic prophylaxis is reliant upon probiotic dose, regardless of application.en
dc.description.abstractgeneralAquaculture is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors in the world allowing it to greatly contribute to global food security. Seafood products are known for their excellent health benefits, providing good sources of protein, fatty acids, and vitamins. However, the animals raised in this industry, like in many facets of animal agriculture, are susceptible to disease. Diseases can be costly to treat and if no treatment exists, can be detrimental to farms, especially to highly valued species such as shrimp. Traditionally, many diseases have been treated with antibiotics, however this can promote the growth of antibiotic resistant bacteria, which is a public health concern especially when involving animals fit for human consumption. An alternative to this approach is administering probiotics or beneficial bacteria to these animals. When incorporated with feed or applied to water, these beneficial bacteria can prevent diseases and help promote the growth of healthy animals. Two novel probiotics were fed to shrimp, before exposing them to the bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which causes Early Mortality Syndrome, and is responsible for annual shrimp losses of more than $1 billion USD. Signs of this disease and survival were observed to assess if this probiotic could provide protection against this bacterium. Results from these studies show that these probiotics were capable of offering protection to shrimp when they were fed or introduced into tank water in high concentrations. Such probiotic applications could have beneficial effects on intensive shrimp aquaculture and help prevent this disease.en
dc.description.degreeMaster of Science in Life Sciencesen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.subjectLitopenaeus vannameien
dc.subjectPacific white shrimpen
dc.subjectdirect fed microbesen
dc.subjectEarly Mortality Syndrome (EMS)en
dc.subjectVibrio parahaemolyticusen
dc.titleUse of Direct-Fed Microbes To Enhance Shrimp Resistance to a Vibrio Parahaemolyticus Strain Causing Early Mortality Syndromeen
dc.typeThesisen Science and Technologyen Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen of Science in Life Sciencesen
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