Effects of Sand Ingestion on the Cooling of Turbine Blade Outer Air Seals

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Virginia Tech


Modern gas turbine engines operate in environments where particle ingestion, especially sand ingestion, can affect the cooling of various turbine parts. The most critical areas are in the combustor and the first stage components of the turbine. Gas temperatures in these areas are the highest compared to other areas and exceed the melting points of the constituent metals. To extend the life of hot section components, internal convective cooling and external film-cooling are required. This study examined the effects of sand ingestion on various cooling geometries. The first part investigated impingement and film-cooling implemented in a double-walled cooling geometry for the purpose of reducing sand size and thereby reducing blockage due to sand ingestion. The second part analyzed the cooling performance of actual turbine blade outer air seals injected with sand.

Results from these studies showed areas of impingement that promote particle fragmentation are advantageous in reducing particle size and reducing blockage due to particle ingestion. Blockage was significantly increased based on the percentage of large particles present in the sand samples. Increasing the pressure ratio and decreasing the sand amount were also shown to reduce blockage.



sand ingestion, impingement, film-cooling, gas turbine