Latency Study and System Design Guidelines for Cooperative LTE-DSRC Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) Communications including Smart Antenna
Vehicle-related communications are a key application to be enabled by Fifth Generation (5G) wireless systems. The communications enabled by the future Internet of Vehicles (IoV) that are connected to every wireless device are referred to as Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communications. A major application of V2X communication systems will be to provide emergency warnings. This thesis evaluates Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in terms of service quality and latency, and provides guidelines for design of cooperative LTE-DSRC systems for V2X communications. An extensive simulation analysis shows that (1) the number of users in need of warning has an effect on latency, and more so for LTE than for DSRC, (2) the DSRC priority parameter has an impact on the latency, and (3) wider system bandwidths and smaller cell sizes reduce latency for LTE. The end-to-end latency of LTE can be as high as 1.3 s, whereas the DSRC latency is below 15 ms for up to 250 users.
Also, improving performance of systems is as much as important as studying about latency. One method to improving performance is using a better suitable antenna for physical communication. The mobility of vehicles results in a highly variable propagation channel that complicates communication. Use of a smart, steerable antenna can be one solution. The most commonly used antennas for vehicular communication are omnidirectional. Such antennas have consistent performance over all angles in the horizontal plane; however, rapidly steerable directional antennas should perform better in a dynamic propagation environment. A linear array antenna can perform dynamical appropriate azimuth pattern by having different weights of each element. The later section includes (1) identifying beam pattern parameters based on locations of a vehicular transmitter and fixed receivers and (2) an approach to find weights of each element of linear array antenna. Through the simulations with our approach and realistic scenarios, the desired array pattern can be achieved and array element weights can be calculated for the desired beam pattern. Based on the simulation results, DSRC is preferred to use in the scenario which contains large number of users with setup of higher priority, and LTE is preferred to use with wider bandwidth and smaller cell size. Also, the approach to find the controllable array antenna can be developed to the actual implementation of hardware with USRP.